Pierre de Fermat was a great French mathematician who is given credit for early developments that led to infinitesimal calculus (the mathematical study of change).
He is best known for Fermat’s Last Theorem, which he described in a note at the margin of a copy of Diophantus’ Arithmetica.
In number theory, Fermat’s Last Theorem states that no three positive integers a, b, and c satisfy the equation :
an + bn = cn
for any integer value of n greater than 2.
The cases n = 1 and n = 2 are known to have infinitely many solutions since antiquity.
See also Sophie Germain