**Pierre de Fermat** was a great French mathematician who is given credit for early developments that led to **infinitesimal calculus** (the mathematical study of change).

He is best known for **Fermat’s Last Theorem**, which he described in a note at the margin of a copy of *Diophantus’ Arithmetica*.

In number theory, **Fermat’s Last Theorem** states that no three positive integers **a, b, and c** satisfy the equation :

*a ^{n} + b^{n} = c^{n
}*

for any integer value of n greater than 2.

The cases n = 1 and n = 2 are known to have infinitely many solutions since antiquity.

See also **Sophie Germain**

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